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As much as 30% to 40% people have this disease

Periodontitis (parodontitis) is an infection which affectsthe gums and the bone which supports the teeth, which can result in tooth loss.

Periodontitis is caused by millions of bacteria which live in our mouth and multiply due to poor hygiene. The stats show that 30% to 40% people have this disease, which is one of themost common causes of tooth loss among adults.

Unfortunately, periodontitis is a vicious disease, which often comes with mild symptoms, which is why most people don’t even know they have it until it is too late.

If you have noticed certain symptoms of a disease on your teeth and gums, talk to the specialist in our polyclinic, which is specialized for periodontal treatment.

Healthy gingiva

Zdrava gingiva


One of the most basic causes of periodontitis is dental plaque. Dental plaque is a deposit which accumulates on the teeth and contains numerous microorganisms.

Periodontitis usually does notcause pain if the teeth are not so loose that they move during chewing or until abscess (pus accumulation) appears. However, as the bone deteriorates, the teeth become looser and change their position, while the front teeth often protrude.

Apart from the dental plaque, which is the main cause of periodontitis, there are numerous other causesof periodontitis.

The bacteriaprotected under the subgingival plaque can grow and multiply without interruption, while the plaque gets partially mineralized, thus creating subgingival tartar. It cannot be removed by any “household” measure of oral hygiene, but only through professional cleaning done by a dentistc. Subgingival plaque and tartar cause growth of a large number of bacteria in the area below the gingiva in the so-called gingival pocket.

Specialist periodontists and new treatment methodsachieve excellent results today, which gave the treatment of periodontitis a new dimension.


Apart from the dental plaque, which is the main cause of periodontitis, there are numerous other causesof periodontitis.

Bad habits can contribute to development of periodontitis by enabling and speeding up the accumulation of dental plaque. These include:

  • chewing the food with one side of the jaw, which is a habit that typicallyoccurs due to pain or lack of teeth on one side. As a result of this, the self-cleaning mechanism does not function on the inactive side. Deposits and tartar quickly accumulate on teeth. All of this results in inflammation of the gingiva and periodontitis.
  • breathing through the mouth due to inabilityto breathe normally through the nose. This exposes the part of the gingiva to the air and makes it dry. This inhibits the anti-bacterial properties of the saliva. Micro-organisms multiply rapidly in plaque, which speeds up the inflammatory process.
  • consumption of only soft or liquidfood, which is not abrasive and blocks or minimizes the self-cleaning effects. This leads to increased production of plaque.
  • SMOKING inhibitsnormal blood flow in the tissue which reduces the level of organism’s natural self-defence.

Food retention implies pushing the food into the gingiva and deeper tissues, which creates a foundation for breeding of bacteria.

Food retention does not occur in healthy mouth as the natural form of teeth and their mutualcontact prevent this.

However, food can get pushed into the gingiva for several reasons:

  • cavities in places of contact between teeth provide room for food to be pushed into
  • tooth loss causes the neighbouring teeth to tilt or move,which breaks the order and contact between teeth
  • inadequate fillings and prosthetic works due to poor contact between teeth can cause food retention
  • tooth abrasion due to high portion of tooth substance cancause food retention
  • tooth migrations which cause tooth movement and loss of contact between them


Dental plaque is a colourless slimy deposit which accumulates on teeth and other parts of the oral cavity. Since the oral saliva is its basis, it cannot be removed by rinsing the mouth as it is formed only several minutes after washing your teeth, i.e. it is accumulated even when the food is not ingested.


Dental tartar is the mineralized dental plaque and it occurs when dental salts are deposited into the dental plaque. The minerals in the dental tartar come from the saliva, among which the predominant elements are calcium, phosphorous and magnesium. The mineralization process of the dental plaque happens relatively quickly - after 12 to 14 days. The speed primarily depends of contents of saliva and oral hygiene. Dental plaque as one of the causes of periodontitis creates retention places for accumulation of plaque and prevents self-cleaning and maintenance of oral hygiene. It also increases the mechanical pressure onto the free gingiva, which leads to receding gums.


Anatomic anomalies have an important role in occurrence and progress of periodontitis. Anomalies of tooth form refer to poorly formed teeth crowns, which result in increased accumulation of plaque. Anomalies of tooth position refer to different orthodontic anomalies of one or more teeth, as well as different irregular relations between the upper and the lower jaw. Such anomalies are prone teeth, teeth compressed, higher switching, open bite.


Parodontitis simptomi i liječenje

What causes periodontitis and gingivitis

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